‘Killed on the field of battle’, said Paris wits, referring to Berry’s many affairs with opera-singers. Second, each dynasty also had members who, helped by the generous annual incomes all received from the civil lists of the period, and peerhapsencouraged by the reigning monarch of the day, made large private collections. During the Empire the Empress Josephine’s taste for historical subjects and Redouté flower paintings anticipated that of the Duc and Duchesse de Berry. In all she owned 362 pictures, some of which can be admired in her chateau of Malmaison today. A shared artistic influence was her chamberlain Count Lancelot Turpin de Crissé, who later painted views of Naples for the Duchesse de Berry, and of Paris for the Duc de Bordeaux.

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His Prefect, Baron Haussmann, known as ‘the Attila of expropriation’, had the right to work directly with the Emperor and planned to make Paris ‘the imperial Rome of our time’. On the walls of his study in the Tuileries Napoleon III kept a map of Paris marked in his own hands with plans for new streets. The putrid tangles of ancient streets around the Halles and the Ile de la Cité were replaced by new boulevards (Malesherbes, de Sebastopol, de Magenta, the rue de Rennes, the Avenue de l’Opéra and so on) designed, it was said, with all the sutbtlety and intelligence of a cannon ball.

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Horace Walpole, Gibbon and Beckford wrote in French as well as English. The American ambassador Jefferson Caffery was present – perhaps to show American approval, or to ensure lack of bloodshed. As Farouk and Narriman, carrying their son in her arms, passed the royal guards, the royal anthem was played and the royal standard lowered for the last time. Then, according to Neguib, ‘the palace servants in accordance with Egyptian custom set up a wail of lament that could be heard a quarter of a mile away.’ It was punctuated by the rhythmic booming of a twenty-one gun salute. Mohammed Ali was succeeded by his grandson Abbas, who preferred Cairo – in particular the suburb he created there called Abbasiya.

Izmir is the Turkish version of the Greek phrase ‘eis teen Smyrna’ or into Smyrna. Eight characteristics distinguished these cities; geography; diplomacy; polyglottism; hybridity; trade; pleasure; modernity; and vulnerability. They were precursors of – and warnings to – today’s global cities. It’s a broker based in an offshore country for financial services.


His plays, such as Avant, Pendant et Après about the French revolution and its consequences, were performed in a theatre called, after her, le Theatre de Madame. Fascinated by dress, she also patronised a new fashion magazine called La Mode, edited by Emile de Girardin, which published early articles by Balzac and George Sand. Her Bal Marie Stuart in the Tuileries on 2 March 1829 was a Franco-British celebration, commemorating in the spirit of Walter Scott an imaginary visit of Marie de Guise to her daughter Mary Queen of Scots and Francois II (the Duc de Chartres, son of the Duc d’Orleans) in France. Guests went to the royal library in search of accurate illustrations on which to base their magnificent 1560 historical costumes. Contemporaries write that the Duchess at parties was in extraordinarily high spirits.

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As some still do, Muslims entered churches, even lighting candles – to hear the music or to gain divine protection, in addition to that implored in mosques. By 1700 it had fifty mosques, eight synagogues and seven churches . Turks called it ‘gavur izmir’ or infidel Izmir, as so many non-Muslims lived there.

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The Hotel de Ville even contained a throne room, where on 31 July 1830 Louis Philippe Duc d’Orléans was proclaimed Lieutenant-General of the kingdom. Thus a cadet branch of the monarchy ended the brief independent Parisian government of July which had defeated the troops of Charles X during the ‘trois journéees’ of 27, 28 and 29 July. Another monarchical victory over revolution would also be proclaimed at the Hotel de Ville. In a riposte to the proclamation there of the Second Republic on 24 February 1848, the magic number of 7,824,189 votes in favour of establishing the Second Empire would be inscribed in gigantic figures on its façade in November 1852.

Abdulhamid had been lavish in distributing rewards and favours to his servants; the new regime, although keeping Abdulhamid’s heir Mehmed Reshad as Sultan, preferred to cut the cost of the court. Zonaro was dismissed from the post of painter to the Sultan and asked to pay rent on his house since the fall of Abdulhamid. Regarding his treatment https://scamforex.net/ as an insult, on 20 March 1910 he left Istanbul on the Orient Express. Refusing a request to return, he eventually settled in San Remo. Zonaro also painted the religious ceremonies which, before the restrictions imposed by Mustafa Kemal, dominated the public life of the city. The painter went where photographers did not, or could not, go.

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The Duke of Wellington did not believe the ambassador’s protestations of innocence. Stuart had first met Louis XVIII in July 1807, when the King was an exile living on Russian soil, at the palace of Mittau in Courland. Stuart was returning from Memel to Saint Petersburg with the staff of the British embassy, after Alexander I had begun peace negotiations with Napoleon. With tears in his eyes, the exiled and impoverished monarch, already a British pensioner, had ‘in very eloquent and affecting terms’ begged his visitors for £15,000 more. Stuart felt ‘as if I had been at an Execution for a week after’.

Then, traveling via Ephesus and the islands of the Aegean, he visited Athens. By October 1797 he was in Cairo with Frederick Hornemann, an African traveler, and a Major Schwarz from Göttingen. In the end, xcritical website to avenge the patriots’ temporary detention on June 28, 1787 of his sister the Princess of Orange, the King of Prussia sent an army under his cousin the duke of Brunswick into the United Provinces.

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